BODY

To  identify the alternative methods of obtaining economic income, of avoiding the destruction of the national park Yasuni. The governments at present look for the way easiest to obtain money from the petroleum development in this case the yasuni one of the second bigger reservations of the country, one of the last moorlands of biodiversity of the world.

In what we must focus it is measurements that we must take so that yasuni is a free development area due to, that there is provided with an exuberant vegetation, the only sceneries, where they live the most varied and the only representative of the flora and fauna, as well as indigenous groups that want to preserve its culture, millennial tradition.

Yasuni additionally have more biodiverse areas of the Earth, “the studies speak about 150 amphibians species, 121 of reptiles, 598 birds species, between 169 (confirmed ones) and 204 (dears) of mammals, and in flora 2113 species have been identified and it is believed that they would exist about 3100 and group people indigenous as well as wao, the tagaeri and taromenane, are groups in voluntary isolation.” (Margot,2010, Finer, 2010,JENKS,2010, CISNEROS, 2010,McCraken,2010, Pickman,2010)

The alternative methods that so that the economy of the country without need for exploitation of petroleum, it seems to me that the lombricultura because it is very profitable, it would help to the economy of the country, you present yourself in individuals, especially to the conservation of the park, since it retrains and of that products are obtained for to the agriculture, it is unnaturally friendly with the nature, additionally I believe that it is a question of sustainable tourism that guarantees the harmony with the ambience and the conservation of the culture, apart from this he helps to generate income and employment.

The lombricultura is more important that is one accessible alternative for the government and people that is one activity of to breed a domestic worm (Eisenia foetida), is a work that more  many country to use, but few make for such a reason it is an advantage for the country, apart from this is it gives solution to the problems of contamination and turns the pollutant into a useful and marketable product. Besides the ecoturismos is other method  so as to the conservation yasuni which it is based a trip ambientalmente  responsible, to regions little disturbed to enjoy the natural way and the culture of the inhabitants of such a way, to promote so much the appreciation of the local natural and cultural wealths to be visited, what is more it reaches port the economic from Ecuadorian in especially the park national yasuni.

 

MICELA TAPUY

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INTRODUCTION.- Negative effects of deforestation of the forests of the Amazon

Deforestation  are among the main components of global change  and both contribute to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. Deforestation has been directly linked to species extinctions  loss of ecosystem services , enhanced emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases , and changes in the structure and habitat quality of aquatic ecosystems.

The following research work is intended to give know the serious deforestation our nature, which have directly affected the human being, with the Indiscriminate cutting of existing trees on the site, which has contributed to the request of water sources, has been destroyed natural spaces that have long been the habitat of several species of animals.

For most of human history, deforestation in the Amazon was primarily the product of subsistence farmers who cut down trees to produce crops for their families and local consumption. But in the later part of the 20th century, that began to change, with an increasing proportion of deforestation driven by industrial activities and large-scale agriculture. By the 2000s more than three-quarters of forest clearing in the Amazon was for cattle-ranching.

 

The result of this shift is forests in the Amazon were cleared faster than ever before in the late 1970s through the mid 2000s. Vast areas of rainforest were felled for cattle pasture and soy farms, drowned for dams, dug up for minerals, and bulldozed for towns and colonization projects. At the same time, the proliferation of roads opened previously inaccessible forests to settlement by poor farmers, illegal logging, and land speculators.

 

BODY .-Negative effects of deforestation of the forests of the Amazon

Name : Fernando Viteri

Amazon Rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is the world’s largest intact forest. It’s home to more than 24 million people in Brazil alone, including hundreds of thousands of Indigenous Peoples belonging to 180 different groups.

There’s a reason the Amazon was the place that inspired scientists to coin the term “biodiversity.” The region is home to 10 percent of all plant and animal species known on Earth. There are approximately 40,000 species of plants and more than 400 mammals. Birds add almost 1,300, and the insects reach millions.

In addition to its unparalleled diversity of life, the Amazon plays an essential role in helping to control the entire planet’s atmospheric carbon levels. The Amazon Basin stores approximately 100 billion metric tons of carbon, more than ten times the annual global emissions from fossil fuels. While it covers 2.6 million square miles across nine countries — Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana — about 60 percent of the Amazon Basin is in Brazil, where Greenpeace has prioritized its Amazon work.

In the last 40 years, the  Amazon lost more than 18 percent of its rainforest — an area about the size of California — to illegal logging, soy plantations, and cattle ranching. Most of the remaining forest is under threat, and with it the plants, animals, and people who depend on the forest to survive.

Around the world, stepped up to achieve policy reform, additional protected areas, and commitments from corporations that have slowed the rate of deforestation. The Tapajós River, a tributary of the Amazon, and the site of a recent battle over a megadam that threatened the lives of Indigenous peoples and the forest itself.

Why Save the Amazon?

For one, the Amazon is on the frontlines of the fight against global warming.

Currently, the Amazon is a carbon sink, meaning it stores carbon dioxide and prevents it from entering the atmosphere and fueling climate change. Deforestation, on the other hand, releases that carbon into the air, making global warming worse. Because of this, deforestation accounts for about 10 to 15 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Losing the Amazon means more carbon emissions and a warmer world. No matter how far from the region you live, the Amazon plays an important role in all of our lives, and we all play a role in protecting the homes of thousands of people and some of the world’s rarest wildlife.

Take Action for the Amazon

While these and other victories have slowed deforestation in the Amazon, there’s more work to be done. A slew of proposed infrastructure projects are on the table that threaten the livelihoods of Indigenous groups throughout the Amazon Basin and would destroy massive amounts of forest. while traditional forest communities across the Amazon have everything to lose.

(Body) Fungi as carbon stores

Fungus, plural fungi, any of about 99,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms.

Fungi are everywhere in very large numbers—in the soil and the air, in lakes, rivers, and seas, on and within plants and animals, in food and clothing, and in the human body. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for breaking down organic matter and releasing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus into the soil and the atmosphere.

What role do decomposers play in the carbon cycle?

The role decomposers play in the carbon cycle is breaking down the remains of dead plants and animals. Through this process, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via respiration, which is the second step in the carbon cycle. Decomposers refer to microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that are seen properly only through a microscope.

The main processes of the carbon cycle are photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, natural rock weathering and fossil fuel combustion. Respiration takes place in plants, animals and decomposers. This process involves the use of oxygen in breaking down organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water. Animals take in oxygen and oxidize their food to return carbon into the atmosphere, while decomposers consume the rotting remains of plants and animals, thereby returning carbon dioxide into the air. Decomposers thrive in soil and water, and they play an important role in the carbon cycle. Aside from breaking down dead matter, they also remove and recycle living organisms’ waste products that are considered as nature’s garbage. They degrade complex organic molecules, which permanently take in carbon and keep it from being useful to organisms, and release inorganic molecules. The nutrients they produce are consumed by green plants, which are eaten by animals. Eventually, the products of plants and animals are broken down again by decomposers.

Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage

Soil carbon storage is an important function of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil contains more carbon than plants and the atmosphere combined. Understanding what maintains the soil carbon pool is important to understand the current distribution of carbon on Earth, and how it will respond to environmental change. While much research has been done on how plants, free living microbial decomposers, and soil minerals affect this pool of carbon, it is recently coming to light that mycorrhizal fungi symbiotic fungi that associate with roots of almost all living plants may play an important role in maintaining this pool as well. Measurements of plant carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi have been estimated to be 5-20% of total plant carbon uptake, and in some ecosystems the biomass of mycorrhizal fungi can be comparable to the biomass of fine roots.

THE USE OF THE VERMICULTURE

The vermiculture is the process of using worms to decompose organic food waste, turning the waste into a nutrient-rich material capable of supplying necessary nutrients to help sustain plant growth. This method is simple, effective, convenient, and noiseless. It saves water, energy, landfills, and helps rebuild the soil. The worms ability to convert organic waste into nutrient-rich material reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers. We violate nature’s ability to complete the life cycle process when we send food down the garbage disposal, or bury it in a landfill. We deplete the soil and deprive nature from rehabilitating itself when we bypass this natural life cycle recycling process.

“It has a high content of macro trace elements offering a balanced diet for plants. One of the main characteristics is its great content of microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and fungi) which allow to raise the biological activity of the soils. The bacterial load is about twenty billion per gram of dry matter. In its composition all the nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, carbon, etc., in sufficient quantity to guarantee the perfect development of the plants, in addition to a high content in Organic matter, which enriches the terrain.

Compared with other organic tales of fertilizers as estimated from cattle, pigs, hens etc. It has the great advantage that a ton of humus is equivalent to 10 tons of stiffening of the endings.

It is defined as an organism that acts on the organic substances of the terrain where it is applied. It also contains good amounts of phytohormones. All the more properties of the presence of the enzymes make this product very valuable for land that has been rendered sterile by intensive farms, the use of poorly balanced chemical fertilizers and the massive use of pesticides.” (Estrella, 2010)

My question is this essay is: Why does the vermiculture help to the environment?

“The pollution of the environment is one of the problems that the man faces and that tries to solve, diverse alternatives exist one of her is the vermiculture that takes charge of the cleanliness of organic garbage of the soil using earthworms Red Californian. This skill allows these organic beings to feed on this garbage providing at the moment of digesting them and expelling its residues; organic fertilizer to fertilize the soils.” (Vega, 2012), For example:

  • It improves the conditions of the soil, retains the moisture and can with facility join at the basic level of the soil, improving its texture and increasing its water retention capacity.
  • Detoxifies the soils contaminated with chemicals.
  • It activates the biological processes of the soil.  

It recycles all kinds of organic matter and obtains like fruit of this work fundamentally two products: the humus and the meat. Making use at the same time of the same earthworm for multiple uses: in alive, for bait of fishing and on having been so rich in proteins, like food for chicks of all classes (partridge, quail, pheasant, etc. ) and in flour to mix with food for fish, so much of domestic fishbowls as fish farms.

The application of the Vermiculture in the country is of big importance since although Ecuador is petroleum also it is agricultural and we need to keep our soils preserved, what will allow us to have a better production and a better economic growth.

Also, we must point out that we can make use of the organic fertilizer exporting it to other countries that want to implement it in its cultivation generating profit to invest them in the application of new technology in the country for a better sustainable development.

The Vermiculture has every more future day, since it helps the man to recycle the remains of most of the organic matters that it produces both of animal and domestic origin, avoiding the contamination and simultaneously helping him in the systems of agricultural, forest production and of gardening, putting at its disposal a product completely ecological and recognized like ideal for the food of any class of plants and germination of seeds.

JESSICA VELASCO