(Body) Fungi as carbon stores

Fungus, plural fungi, any of about 99,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms.

Fungi are everywhere in very large numbers—in the soil and the air, in lakes, rivers, and seas, on and within plants and animals, in food and clothing, and in the human body. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for breaking down organic matter and releasing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus into the soil and the atmosphere.

What role do decomposers play in the carbon cycle?

The role decomposers play in the carbon cycle is breaking down the remains of dead plants and animals. Through this process, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via respiration, which is the second step in the carbon cycle. Decomposers refer to microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that are seen properly only through a microscope.

The main processes of the carbon cycle are photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, natural rock weathering and fossil fuel combustion. Respiration takes place in plants, animals and decomposers. This process involves the use of oxygen in breaking down organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water. Animals take in oxygen and oxidize their food to return carbon into the atmosphere, while decomposers consume the rotting remains of plants and animals, thereby returning carbon dioxide into the air. Decomposers thrive in soil and water, and they play an important role in the carbon cycle. Aside from breaking down dead matter, they also remove and recycle living organisms’ waste products that are considered as nature’s garbage. They degrade complex organic molecules, which permanently take in carbon and keep it from being useful to organisms, and release inorganic molecules. The nutrients they produce are consumed by green plants, which are eaten by animals. Eventually, the products of plants and animals are broken down again by decomposers.

Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage

Soil carbon storage is an important function of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil contains more carbon than plants and the atmosphere combined. Understanding what maintains the soil carbon pool is important to understand the current distribution of carbon on Earth, and how it will respond to environmental change. While much research has been done on how plants, free living microbial decomposers, and soil minerals affect this pool of carbon, it is recently coming to light that mycorrhizal fungi symbiotic fungi that associate with roots of almost all living plants may play an important role in maintaining this pool as well. Measurements of plant carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi have been estimated to be 5-20% of total plant carbon uptake, and in some ecosystems the biomass of mycorrhizal fungi can be comparable to the biomass of fine roots.

THE USE OF THE VERMICULTURE

The vermiculture is the process of using worms to decompose organic food waste, turning the waste into a nutrient-rich material capable of supplying necessary nutrients to help sustain plant growth. This method is simple, effective, convenient, and noiseless. It saves water, energy, landfills, and helps rebuild the soil. The worms ability to convert organic waste into nutrient-rich material reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers. We violate nature’s ability to complete the life cycle process when we send food down the garbage disposal, or bury it in a landfill. We deplete the soil and deprive nature from rehabilitating itself when we bypass this natural life cycle recycling process.

“It has a high content of macro trace elements offering a balanced diet for plants. One of the main characteristics is its great content of microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and fungi) which allow to raise the biological activity of the soils. The bacterial load is about twenty billion per gram of dry matter. In its composition all the nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, carbon, etc., in sufficient quantity to guarantee the perfect development of the plants, in addition to a high content in Organic matter, which enriches the terrain.

Compared with other organic tales of fertilizers as estimated from cattle, pigs, hens etc. It has the great advantage that a ton of humus is equivalent to 10 tons of stiffening of the endings.

It is defined as an organism that acts on the organic substances of the terrain where it is applied. It also contains good amounts of phytohormones. All the more properties of the presence of the enzymes make this product very valuable for land that has been rendered sterile by intensive farms, the use of poorly balanced chemical fertilizers and the massive use of pesticides.” (Estrella, 2010)

My question is this essay is: Why does the vermiculture help to the environment?

“The pollution of the environment is one of the problems that the man faces and that tries to solve, diverse alternatives exist one of her is the vermiculture that takes charge of the cleanliness of organic garbage of the soil using earthworms Red Californian. This skill allows these organic beings to feed on this garbage providing at the moment of digesting them and expelling its residues; organic fertilizer to fertilize the soils.” (Vega, 2012), For example:

  • It improves the conditions of the soil, retains the moisture and can with facility join at the basic level of the soil, improving its texture and increasing its water retention capacity.
  • Detoxifies the soils contaminated with chemicals.
  • It activates the biological processes of the soil.  

It recycles all kinds of organic matter and obtains like fruit of this work fundamentally two products: the humus and the meat. Making use at the same time of the same earthworm for multiple uses: in alive, for bait of fishing and on having been so rich in proteins, like food for chicks of all classes (partridge, quail, pheasant, etc. ) and in flour to mix with food for fish, so much of domestic fishbowls as fish farms.

The application of the Vermiculture in the country is of big importance since although Ecuador is petroleum also it is agricultural and we need to keep our soils preserved, what will allow us to have a better production and a better economic growth.

Also, we must point out that we can make use of the organic fertilizer exporting it to other countries that want to implement it in its cultivation generating profit to invest them in the application of new technology in the country for a better sustainable development.

The Vermiculture has every more future day, since it helps the man to recycle the remains of most of the organic matters that it produces both of animal and domestic origin, avoiding the contamination and simultaneously helping him in the systems of agricultural, forest production and of gardening, putting at its disposal a product completely ecological and recognized like ideal for the food of any class of plants and germination of seeds.

JESSICA VELASCO

Introduction of Fungi as carbon stores

How does the fungi’s role in the carbon cycle help the environment?

Introduction

 The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms, both in terms of their ecological and economic roles. Fungi are not plants, which encompasses an estimated 6 million species, including molds and yeasts.(Talbot Jennifer 2015)

Its role is break down dead organic material, and continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems, also the fungi play an important role in the storage and release of carbon from plants.(Stephen Ornes 2013

Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow. The carbon becomes part of the plant. When plants die, the fungi break down the remains of dead plants, in doing so, release carbon dioxide through respiration. (Kathiann Kowalski 2014)

In the present essay to explain my topic about Fungi as carbon stores, I will use different methods such as tables, already verified data and a deep investigation where it helps me to explain how the fungi help with the absorption of carbon to the environment.

Alejandra Feijoo

Introduction of The Yasuni park should be a protected area free from oil explotation.

Yasuni for you, Flows the oil, bleeds the ground for the uncontrolled extraction. ( Anonymous,2015)

The Yasuni is one of the areas more biodiverse area in the world, which is provided with variety of the abundance and only flora and fauna that they need to be protected although the Yasuni is one of the areas with major petroleum reservation in south America. In this the importance or the attention takes root that the government and the world puts to the park yasuni for this reason, the natural reserve Yasuni has atched the attention from the Ecuadorian government dive to its economic interest and the whole world has also paid attention to what is happening in the park.
But in fact what we all should be interested in is to leap the oil in the found because it destroys the biodiversity, the ecosystems, the flora and fauna, and the life’s of the native people and their environmental, looking for alternatives of economic income for the country, it prevents from being exploited by petroleum or existing resources.
In the present essay I try to come to a solution to avoid the petroleum development and to look for alternative methods to generate resources for the country without damage being caused to the yasuni by means of surveys and investigating thoroughly especially the related to the yasuni without development and the benefits of earlier mentioned.

In this the importance or the attention takes root that the government and the world puts to the park yasuni

Summary of Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversit Conservation

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INDIGENOUS AND MODERN KNOWLEDGE
All societies, pre-scientific and scientific strive to make sense of how the natural world behaves. this knowledge was based on observations. Science-based societies have tended to overuse the ecological systems, resulting the exhaustion and environmental degradatio. The knowledge and beliefs of indigenous societies accumulated over time about the relationship of living beings, with one another and with their environment, it is of great importance in the scientific world, and helps find ways of environmental conservation.
ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY

Working in the Ecuador portion of the Amazon forest has also reported that Runa Indian swiddens resemble agroforestry systems rather tan the slash-and-bum than merely results in temporary clearings in the forest canopy. Between 14 and 35% of this enhanced species diversity was attributed to direct planting and protection of secondary species. Runa agroforestry as a low-intensity succession manage-ment system which, nevertheless, alters forest composition and structure in the long run.

RESTORING BIODIVERSITY
Restoration of biodiversity in the landscape to protect local forests to encourage natural regeneration. Once enabled and assured participation in the production of more regenerated forest reserves. Government agency and Council are planning a serious stimulus to these local initiatives for the restoration of the productivity and biodiversity of degraded lands. The NWDB experiment in micro- to integrate this development of wastelands, attempts to recreate a community of diverse plants supplied by indigenous species and species Genas. plantation forests serve as supply.
CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY

That indigenous people are aware of a large variety of uses of local biodiversity including medical uses. Their knowledge of habitat preference, life story. Their knowledge are explicit and socially transmitted from an across generations. The indigenous knowledge base pertaining to conservation is no as explicit.

But in the case of fisheries of other industries they have: four kings of indigenous conservations practices are of particular relevance.

  1. Total protection to many individual biological communities including pool along rivers courses, ponds, meadows and forests.
  2. All individuals of certain species of plants and animals may be afforded total protection.
  3. Certain particularly vulnerable stages in the life history of an organism may be given special protection.
  4. Major events of resource harvest are often carried out as a group effort.
KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE AND BELIEF
Joshi and Gadgil found a method that facilitates the ability to maximize crops bilógicos products and avoid the extinction of bilógicas species and indigenous retain their groves, other beliefs and their holy places that are considered characteristic of the conservation of stocks indigenous people.