(Body) Fungi as carbon stores

Fungus, plural fungi, any of about 99,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms.

Fungi are everywhere in very large numbers—in the soil and the air, in lakes, rivers, and seas, on and within plants and animals, in food and clothing, and in the human body. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for breaking down organic matter and releasing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus into the soil and the atmosphere.

What role do decomposers play in the carbon cycle?

The role decomposers play in the carbon cycle is breaking down the remains of dead plants and animals. Through this process, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via respiration, which is the second step in the carbon cycle. Decomposers refer to microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that are seen properly only through a microscope.

The main processes of the carbon cycle are photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, natural rock weathering and fossil fuel combustion. Respiration takes place in plants, animals and decomposers. This process involves the use of oxygen in breaking down organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water. Animals take in oxygen and oxidize their food to return carbon into the atmosphere, while decomposers consume the rotting remains of plants and animals, thereby returning carbon dioxide into the air. Decomposers thrive in soil and water, and they play an important role in the carbon cycle. Aside from breaking down dead matter, they also remove and recycle living organisms’ waste products that are considered as nature’s garbage. They degrade complex organic molecules, which permanently take in carbon and keep it from being useful to organisms, and release inorganic molecules. The nutrients they produce are consumed by green plants, which are eaten by animals. Eventually, the products of plants and animals are broken down again by decomposers.

Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage

Soil carbon storage is an important function of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil contains more carbon than plants and the atmosphere combined. Understanding what maintains the soil carbon pool is important to understand the current distribution of carbon on Earth, and how it will respond to environmental change. While much research has been done on how plants, free living microbial decomposers, and soil minerals affect this pool of carbon, it is recently coming to light that mycorrhizal fungi symbiotic fungi that associate with roots of almost all living plants may play an important role in maintaining this pool as well. Measurements of plant carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi have been estimated to be 5-20% of total plant carbon uptake, and in some ecosystems the biomass of mycorrhizal fungi can be comparable to the biomass of fine roots.

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Summary of Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversit Conservation

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INDIGENOUS AND MODERN KNOWLEDGE
All societies, pre-scientific and scientific strive to make sense of how the natural world behaves. this knowledge was based on observations. Science-based societies have tended to overuse the ecological systems, resulting the exhaustion and environmental degradatio. The knowledge and beliefs of indigenous societies accumulated over time about the relationship of living beings, with one another and with their environment, it is of great importance in the scientific world, and helps find ways of environmental conservation.
ENHANCING BIODIVERSITY

Working in the Ecuador portion of the Amazon forest has also reported that Runa Indian swiddens resemble agroforestry systems rather tan the slash-and-bum than merely results in temporary clearings in the forest canopy. Between 14 and 35% of this enhanced species diversity was attributed to direct planting and protection of secondary species. Runa agroforestry as a low-intensity succession manage-ment system which, nevertheless, alters forest composition and structure in the long run.

RESTORING BIODIVERSITY
Restoration of biodiversity in the landscape to protect local forests to encourage natural regeneration. Once enabled and assured participation in the production of more regenerated forest reserves. Government agency and Council are planning a serious stimulus to these local initiatives for the restoration of the productivity and biodiversity of degraded lands. The NWDB experiment in micro- to integrate this development of wastelands, attempts to recreate a community of diverse plants supplied by indigenous species and species Genas. plantation forests serve as supply.
CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY

That indigenous people are aware of a large variety of uses of local biodiversity including medical uses. Their knowledge of habitat preference, life story. Their knowledge are explicit and socially transmitted from an across generations. The indigenous knowledge base pertaining to conservation is no as explicit.

But in the case of fisheries of other industries they have: four kings of indigenous conservations practices are of particular relevance.

  1. Total protection to many individual biological communities including pool along rivers courses, ponds, meadows and forests.
  2. All individuals of certain species of plants and animals may be afforded total protection.
  3. Certain particularly vulnerable stages in the life history of an organism may be given special protection.
  4. Major events of resource harvest are often carried out as a group effort.
KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE AND BELIEF
Joshi and Gadgil found a method that facilitates the ability to maximize crops bilógicos products and avoid the extinction of bilógicas species and indigenous retain their groves, other beliefs and their holy places that are considered characteristic of the conservation of stocks indigenous people.